What are the flaws in radiocarbon dating
Today, earth has 94 naturally occurring chemical elements..
If we could break a carbon-12 atom apart and “weigh” each of its six protons, six neutrons, and six electrons, the sum of their masses would be 12.098940 AMU—which is 0.098940 AMU heavier than the carbon-12 atom itself.
When separate nucleons (protons and neutrons) are brought together to form a nucleus, a tiny percentage of their mass is instantly converted to a large amount of energy.
That energy (usually measured in units of millions of electron volts, or Me V) is called the nucleons together—snaps them powerfully together—producing a burst of heat.
Next, the two competing theories will be summarized: the hydroplate theory and the chemical evolution theory.
Readers can then judge for themselves which theory better explains the evidence.
The 0.1 AMU of lost mass is converted to energy, according to Einstein’s famous equation, is huge.
For example, a deuterium (hydrogen-2) nucleus contains a proton and a neutron.
Its nucleus has a total binding energy of about 2.2 Me V, so the average binding energy per nucleon is about 1.1 Me V. For example, when uranium fissions, the sum of the binding energies of the fragments is greater than the binding energy of the uranium nucleus, so energy is released.
To contrast and evaluate two radically different explanations for the origin of earth’s radioactivity, we will first explain some terms.
With that background, new and surprising experimental evidence will become clear.