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Overall consumption is highest in the fall and winter (Pérez-Bote 2004).

The life cycle of the red swamp crayfish is relatively short, with an onset of sexual maturity occurring in as few as two months and a total generation time of four and a half months (Huner and Barr 1991). Crayfish effects on seeds and seedlings: identification and quantification of damage.

Recently hatched crayfish remain in the burrow with their mother as long as eight weeks and must molt twice before being self-sufficient (Hunter and Barr 1991).

Due to the cannibalistic nature of conspecifics in communal burrows, adult molting often occurs in the open, even in the presence of predatory fish (Hartman and O’Neill 1999).

Breeding typically taking place in the fall, though in warmer, wetter regions, there may be a second reproductive period in the spring.

This species exhibits high fecundity: a 10 cm female can produce as many as 500 eggs, while a smaller female produces around 100 eggs (GISD 2011, Huner and Barr 1991).

This may be attributed to large claw size in some males and potentially also due to higher male mobility during the mating season (Ilheu and Bernardo 1993, Pérez-Bote 2004).

Breeding male crayfish in the wandering phase may travel as far as 17 km from their site of origin within four days (GISD 2011). Predation on snails and other grazers may lead to increased periphyton biomass relative to macrophytes. Alternately, burrowing activity can suspend sediments and increase water turbidity, reducing light penetration and leading to diminished primary production (Anastácio and Marques 1997, Angeler et al. Enriched levels of heavy metals or pesticides in crayfish organs or tissues are transferred to consumers (Otero et al. The red swamp crayfish has also been characterized within its invaded range as a host to high impact parasites (Mastitsky et al. It harbors numerous flatworm parasites that may be passed on to vertebrates and can carry the crayfish plague fungus (Aphanomyces astaci) as a chronic or latent infection (Huner and Barr 1991, Longshaw 2011). In contrast, prey preference for predatory insects promotes grazer populations and instead decreases periphyton density (Alcorlo et al. The disappearance of newts in California has also been attributed to predation by can further restructure energy flow (e.g., shortened pathways to top predators, simplified food web structure) through traditional trophic levels in an invaded system (Geiger et al. Capable of removing macrophytes from large areas with its cutting feeding behavior (Feminella and Resh 1989, Smart et al. Extensive removal of macrophytes is proposed to have led to local extinction of two snails () in Spain (Montes et al. has been implicated in the spread of this fungus to native crayfish in Europe following initial introduction by the signal crayfish (Barbaresi and Gherardi 2000, Mastitsky et al. North American crayfish species, however, appear to be resistant to the crayfish plague (Huner and Barr 1991). Predation on fish eggs (e.g., lake trout, Mueller et al. Nocturnal activity in the stationary phase does not appear to be driven by predatory avoidance (many of red swamp crayfish predators are also nocturnal) or prey capture (mostly herbivorous; Gherardi et al. Nonnative populations in the United States are likely to have resulted as a release from aquaculture or from the aquarium trade (Simon and Thoma 2006, Thoma and Jezerinac 2000; Kilian et al. This species’ striking red color has lead to commercial advertisement as freshwater “lobster” for aquariums and may have sped up the species’ advance on the west branch of the Grand Calumet River in Indiana and Illinois (Simon et al. The red swamp crayfish is readily available though the biological supply trade and may be released following classroom or laboratory use (Larson and Olden 2008; Kilian et al. It is also popular among anglers as bait for largemouth bass (WDFW 2003). Intended disposal via the sanitary system (being flushed down toilets) is likely to be ineffective, as many has been seen in urban zones around waste water treatment areas, having apparently survived treatment (Indiana Biological Survey 2008). This species is commercially cultured in the southern U.

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2015) demonstrated that the red swamp crayfish could adapt to atypical thermal habitat, characterized by an annual mean water temperature values of 13 °C.

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